Each year, an estimated 45 million Americans diet and spend $33 billion on weight-loss products.(1) Despite this investment, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.9 billion adults worldwide are overweight, including 70% of American adults. Overweight and obesity rates have more than doubled, with overweight and obesity now linked to more deaths globally than being underweight (malnourished). Associated health risks include of overweight and obesity include heart disease, stroke, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and even some cancers, among others.(2)
Many people want to lose weight. A recent study found that reasons overweight and obese people want to lose weight fall into three broad categories: 1) 50% of the participants cited improved health as their number-one reason for wanting to lose weight, followed by 2) appearance, and 3) mood.(3) Yet, as motivated as dieters are each year, many find it challenging to keep up with their weight-loss diet or quit altogether for a number of reasons. One of those reasons is feeling hungry.(4)
“I think the satiety category is a great idea because there are so many possible causes for why people have struggles with their weight, and feeling satiated is definitely one of them,” says Dave Foreman, RPh, ND. “Being satiated means you feel full, but at the same time there are other things that contribute to what makes you feel full, and that could be health issues like low blood sugar that would make you feel hungry. Satiety is important in the supplement industry with regards to overall health care, not just weight loss.”
When seeking ingredients that can support the satiety arm of weight management, Foreman adds that, “As for each individual ingredient, there needs to be a good body of evidence with science on humans that clinically validates their true effectiveness on people, and substantiates claims that are made on it.” With that in mind, here are five ingredients that may help.
1. The Boston Medical Center 2017, https://www.bmc.org/nutrition-and-weight-management/weight-management
2. WHO http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/
3. O’Brien K et al., “Reasons for wanting to lose weight: different strokes for different folks,” Eating Behaviors, vol. 8, no. 1 (January 2007): 132-135
4. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, “Hate to Diet? It’s How We’re Wired.” April 27, 2015. http://www.hhmi.org/news/hate-to-diet-its-how-we-are-wired
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Pharmachem’s Phase 2 Carb Controller
The branded ingredient Phase 2 Carb Controller is the first proprietary extract of the white bean clinically shown to reduce the digestion of starch and promote weight loss. It is made in the United States by Pharmachem Laboratories (Kearny, NJ) from non-GMO white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).
In the largest human study conducted on the ingredient, to date, subjects taking Phase 2 Carb Controller lost an average of seven pounds more than those on placebo after 12 weeks. In addition, 73.5% of the participants in the weight-management phase successfully maintained their body weight after 24 weeks.
The subjects in the study also completed the “Control of Eating Questionnaire” (COEQ), which uses visual analogue scales to assess subject’s feelings such as hunger, satiety, and food cravings. “Based on the results from the questionnaire, after 12 weeks, the active arm in the weight-loss study experienced a statistically significant decrease in their desire, as well as in their frequency and strength of food cravings, for chocolates and other sweet foods,” said Mitch Skop, senior director, new product development for Pharmachem. “In contrast, the placebo group had a significant increase in the difficulty in resisting certain foods.”
Phase 2 Carb Controller is FDA-GRAS affirmed and has accepted claims and structure/function claims in the U.S. and Canada.
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Slendesta is a branded, natural potato protein–based dietary ingredient from Kemin Human Nutrition and Health (Des Moines, IA). The active molecule in Slendesta is proteinase inhibitor II (PI2). PI2 works by promoting and extending the body’s natural release of cholecystokinin (CCK), which is a peptide that signals key organs, including the stomach and brain, to induce feelings of fullness.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study on Slendesta conducted at Iowa State University explored supplementation in healthy individuals who took 300 mg or 600 mg of Slendesta 60 minutes before breakfast. According to the study authors, the study participants reported feeling significantly fuller, with decreased motivation to eat compared to the placebo group. In addition, post-meal CCK levels were found to be significantly increased in Slendesta subjects and remained elevated longer compared to the placebo group. These findings support the satiety-signaling mechanism of action for Slendesta.
“Today, consumers recognize and understand that dieting isn’t easy and success won’t happen overnight. They are committed to building healthy habits, but need products like Slendesta that will improve their chances of reaching their long-term goals. Slendesta works by promoting satiety, which is crucial for helping individuals gain control over their hunger,” says Dana Yonker, Slendesta product manager, Kemin.
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Slimaluma is Gencor’s (Anaheim, CA) proprietary Caralluma fimbriata extract. The company says that its patented process enables it to extract the key constituents of the whole Caralluma fimbriata plant associated with appetite suppression.
In 2007, an eight-week, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial (5) conducted in India found that Slimaluma supplementation in 50 overweight adult subjects resulted in significant results for waist circumference and hunger level when combined with a healthy diet and exercise.
5. Kuriyan R et al., “Effect of Caralluma fimbriata extract on appetite, food intake and anthropometry in adult Indian men and women,” Appetite, vol. 48, no. 3 (May 2007): 338-344
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SolaThin is a branded vegetarian protein made solely from potatoes and supplied by Bioriginal (Irvine, CA). Comprising 90% protein, SolaThin is standardized to 40% PI2, the proteinase inhibitor that increases satiety signals to both the brain and gastrointestinal tract.
During a 21-day study at Swinburne University in Australia, 60 participants were given dosages of either 500 mg or 1000 mg of SolaThin, or a placebo. Compared to the placebo, SolaThin subjects experienced an increase in pounds of fat lost after 21 days; those taking 1000 mg of SolaThin demonstrated, on average, about 2 pounds of fat loss during the study.
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OmniLean is a Salacia extract from OmniActive Health Technologies (Morristown, NJ) designed to support multiple facets of metabolic health, including healthy weight, reducing hunger, and helping ease the urge to snack. It may also reduce high blood glucose levels resulting from consuming a high-carb meal.
The company says that in an unpublished randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, researchers found that OmniLean had positive effects on postprandial rise in blood glucose and insulin, as well as a positive impact on additional markers of satiety (GLP-1 and amylin). The study demonstrated that OmniLean reduced feelings of hunger and the urge to snack and confirmed prior research supporting healthy glucose metabolism.
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